The simplest and cheapest ways to reduce daily fluctuations are the painting of tanks and the construction of protective screens, more complicated and expensive - thermal insulation, irrigation of tanks and their underground placement. The color of the tank is used in any conditions as a way to combat evaporation, and to protect the tank from corrosion. The color of the paint greatly influences the heating of the walls of the tank and, accordingly, the heating of the oil product in the tank.
Gasoline, which is in the same conditions in tanks, painted in different colors, has the following temperatures: aluminum color - 11.5 ° C; gray - 14.6 ° С; red lead - 16.6 ° C; green - 22 ° С; black - 30 ° С, i.e. petroleum products stored in tanks, painted in light colors, with better reflectivity, are much less susceptible to daily temperature fluctuations. White color has the highest reflectivity. When storing gasoline in a ground-level horizontal tank painted with white paint, losses are halved compared to aluminum, which is usually painted tanks on oil storage. In addition, white paint lasts for 3-4 years, and aluminum (AL-177) lasts 1.5 - 2 years.
The construction of protective screens is implemented by planting trees of deciduous trees near the tanks, as well as the placement of ground tanks under sheds. In the southern regions, reflective insulation of tanks is used, consisting of a roof - a screen and side walls installed at a distance of 0.1 ... 0.5 m from the surfaces of the tank. The use of protective screens reduces the loss of petroleum products by 2-3 times.
It is possible to isolate the surfaces of tanks with materials with low thermal conductivity, such as foam glass, foam concrete, slag glass, but it is necessary to take into account the high cost of covering materials themselves and the fact that they themselves need protection from precipitation and impair control of the tank surface.
The most popular method for combating evaporation of fuel from tanks and heating low-temperature energy carrier is often the method of thermal insulation with a standard set of materials: classical heat-insulating materials (mineral wool, polyurethane foam, polystyrene foam, etc.) and a galvanized steel casing.
This method is rather outdated, does not meet the high requirements of energy efficiency and has a number of negative sides:
- complex and time-consuming installation process, requiring highly skilled workers;
- large amount of storage and storage of materials used;
- high cost of materials and work;
- the inability to protect the upper part of the tank;
- the big weight of a design of thermal insulation and effect of sail;
- the inability to control the technical condition of the walls of the tank during operation;
- the complexity of the repair work;
- metal corrosion under heat insulation;
- low percentage of reflection of thermal energy of solar radiation;
- lack of protection against condensate;
- lack of insulation from moisture;
- low fire safety;
- accelerated aging of heat-insulating materials and a rapid decrease in thermal performance;
- susceptibility to looting or vandalism.
With the adoption of federal, regional and departmental energy saving programs, innovative solutions for thermal protection of tanks are required, and there are such solutions.
For many years, innovative systems of thermal protection have been used to fulfill these tasks in many countries; one of such systems is the system of coatings developed and manufactured by Innovative Technologies LLC (Russia). The system consists of two coatings: NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™ and RE-THERM ™.
NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™is a one-component anti-rust primer.
The fundamentally new approach to corrosion protection is embodied in the primer NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™, which consists in the complex chemical interaction of the molecules of the components with iron oxides and atoms of the metal lattice. NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™ contains nanosized silica sol and alumina sol (boehmite). The addition of nanoscale sols to NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™ provides a significant reduction in the content of organic binder while maintaining the elasticity of the coating and a significant increase in adhesion to various surfaces, as well as the cohesive strength of the coating itself. At the same time, NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™ coating practically does not shrink due to the high percentage of dry residue, and has high heat resistance. Operating temperature range from -70°C to +230°C. The primer has the ability to penetrate microcracks and pores of the metal while simultaneously suppressing the onset of corrosion processes. At the same time, durable chelate complexes with the polymer component of the primer are formed on the metal surface, reliably protecting the metal from external influence. This mechanism of action allows the primer to firmly bind the rust layer to 100 microns.
The high corrosion resistance of NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™ makes it possible to minimize significant labor costs for preparing metal surfaces for painting, especially in hard-to-reach places of structures. The use of a primer eliminates the costly shot-blasting of metal surfaces from corrosion products before painting.
RE-THERM™is a single-component, water-based, liquid heat-resistant coating with a filling made from a combination of silicone and ceramic microspheres that effectively reflects thermal and solar radiation.
In addition to the "mirror" effect, the material has a low coefficient of thermal conductivity, which does not change during operation. The coating is environmentally friendly and does not leave behind waste, it is anti-vandal and not of interest for looting, it weighs little and does not have the effect of sail, it is fireproof, both during work and during operation. The coating is easily applied as an ordinary paint by any means and does not require high skill from the workers. The average thickness of the coating is from 1.5 to 2 mm, the average consumption is 1.5 liters per 1 square meter of surface, the weight of the material is 0.55 - 0.6 kg / liter. Available modification for work in the winter, up to -20°C.
All materials and production are certified.
The main advantages of using the NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™ + RE-THERM ™ coating system:
- minimum storage and security;
- possibility of work (from cradles) without scaffolding;
- minimal preparatory work with the exception of expensive sandblasting;
- low cost of work and quick payback;
- complete lack of pressure on the environment, both during work and during operation;
- high service life without changing the technical characteristics;
- a significant reduction in the total weight of thermal protection, reducing the load on the foundation;
- minimum load on the roof of the tank;
- free access to control, for the state of welds and other elements of the tank;
- complete absence of corrosion processes;
- does not change its properties from ultraviolet radiation, from temperature changes and is not afraid of moisture.
It should be noted that classical thermal insulation due to its thermal resistance only slows down the process of penetration of thermal energy of solar radiation into the tank, while the RE-THERM™ coating almost completely reflects thermal radiation, preventing thermal energy from penetrating into the tank and heating the energy carrier without letting the contents of the reservoir cool or freeze in winter.
An example of using a similar coating system in Pemex Oil (Mexico).
After conducting a thorough analysis of this system, the attention of the company's specialists focused on the question of how much maintenance costs can be reduced using a combination of coatings - “Effective primer” and “Liquid thermal protection”.
Such an innovative coating system not only provided excellent insulation and protection against corrosion, but also made it possible to abandon the standard methods of work that exclude several types of them, for example, such labor-intensive and expensive as sandblasting. Through the use of such a system of thermal protection, the service life of the tanks was extended from 4.5 to 10-15 years, and the savings over a ten-year period amounted to $ 300 million.
Maintenance costs have been significantly reduced, and the problem of fuel evaporation has faded into the background due to a tenfold savings in eliminating a number of tank maintenance procedures. Longer maintenance intervals have saved much more money.
An example of labor saving when using an innovative coating system on a tank with a capacity of 80 thousand barrels:
- tanks are repainted every 4-5 years;
- the cost of labor and materials for repainting a single tank is approximately $ 65,000;
- using an innovative coating system, the repainting interval can be effectively increased by 2 - 2.5 times to 10 years;
- saving on labor and materials for 10 years will be 1 - 1.5 times;
- savings in each tank in terms of money range from $ 65 thousand to $ 97 thousand over 10 years;
- taking the number of tanks equal to 3000, the total savings over 10 years will be from $ 195 to $ 300 million;
- the total savings over 10 years from the use of coatings "Effective primer" + "Liquid thermal protection" to prevent fuel evaporation and rusting of tanks will be from $ 213 to $ 322.5 million;
- considering the savings from reducing evaporation and increasing the repainting interval, the payback period will be at least 3.2 years or 68%.
Among the main areas of application of the considered coating system are:
- tanks and communications with oil products, fuel, liquefied hydrocarbons;
- tanks and communications with low-temperature energy carriers;
- non-technological equipment to prevent heating from thermal radiation.
If we compare the "new" system with the "traditional", we can briefly identify the differences:
- traditional- cumbersome, expensive and time consuming;
- new- eco-friendly, economical and energy efficient.
Today, a similar technology has been successfully used in various enterprises around the world. Many world-famous companies have incorporated innovative technology into their standards for ensuring the energy efficiency of production processes. Russia still has to go along this path, and innovative materials produced by LLC Innovative Technologies will contribute to this in many ways.
Comparison of installation of two types of insulation1. Fastening the heat-insulating mineral wool layer with metal pins.
Fastening the heat-insulating layer with pins is provided for vertical and horizontal surfaces with a large radius of curvature and flat surfaces (tanks for storing oil and oil products, hot water storage tanks, drinking water tanks and for technical needs, including fire-fighting, metal chimney stacks, other large equipment). The pins for attaching the insulation layer can be plug-in (if clamps are provided for fastening the pins) or welded.
2. Coating with liquid heat-shielding materials.
Coating with liquid heat-shielding materials is provided for all types and configurations of surfaces in the likeness of ordinary painting work.
Comparative analysis of work
Performance of thermal insulation of tank enclosing structures with mineral wool plates:
1. Anticorrosion treatment of the tank wall.
2. Installation of fastenings bandage.
3. Coloring of the tank wall in 2 layers.
4. Installation of heat insulation plates.
5. Hydro-vapor barrier mineral wool plates.
6. Installation of bandage.
7. Installation of the coating layer.
8. Finishing coloring of the tank in 2 layers.
9. Installation and dismantling of scaffolding.
The real service life of mineral wool insulation on average is 5 years, during which the insulation properties invariably deteriorate and may deteriorate even during storage and installation.
Thermal protection of tanks with the NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™ + RE-THERM ™ system.
1. NANO-FIX ANTICOR ™ Anticorrosion Treatment
2. RE-THERM ™ Coating
The real lifetime of the RE-THERM ™ is 15 years, without changing the characteristics.
Thermal insulation of industrial equipment, in addition to energy-saving functions, makes it possible to carry out technological processes with given parameters, allows you to create safe working conditions in production, reduces the loss of easily evaporated petroleum products in tanks, and allows you to store liquefied gases in isothermal storage facilities.
When choosing a heat-insulating material, the strength and deformation characteristics of the insulated object, the calculated allowable loads on supports and other elements of the insulated surface are taken into account. Thus, when isolating steel vertical tanks for storing water, oil and petroleum products, the permissible load from the insulation is limited to 32–34 kg / m2.
Fire safety requirements are determined by the technological design standards of specific industries, taking into account the provisions of SNiP 41-03-2003 "Thermal insulation of equipment and pipelines." For such industries as gas, petrochemical, chemical, production of mineral fertilizers, departmental norms allow the use of only non-combustible and hard-to-fire materials as part of thermal insulation structures. When choosing materials, not only the indicators of the flammability of the heat-insulating layer and the protective coating are taken into account, but also the behavior of the heat-insulating structure under fire conditions in general.
The fire hazard of thermal insulation structures, along with other factors, depends on the temperature resistance of the protective coating and its mechanical strength under fire conditions. Non-combustible fibrous heat-insulating materials under certain conditions can absorb combustible substances (oil products, oils, etc.), which, in turn, can affect the combustibility of the structure and are capable of self-ignition, which is also taken into account in the design.
Looking at this picture, you can accurately determine that the new thermal protection system is more convenient during installation and operation.
The durability of thermal insulation structures depends on their design features and operating conditions, including the location of the insulated object, the mode of operation of the equipment, the degree of aggressiveness of the environment, the intensity of mechanical effects. The durability of the thermal insulation structure as a whole is largely determined by the durability of the protective coating.
When designing the foundation for tanks, you can save building materials, taking into account the use of RE-THERM™, since its weight is much less than the total structure of traditional thermal insulation and does not carry a large load on the foundation.
To calculate the thickness of the insulation layers, questionnaires are filled in for each object, on the basis of which the technological solution is developed and an individual modification of RE-THERM™ is made.